Работа студентов материалы 58-й научной студенческой конференции - страница 23

^ Секция современных проблем медицины
(на иностранных языках) NEW DRUGS FOR CANCER TREATMENT Жураховская Д. — студ. 2 курса
Научный руководитель — канд. мед. наук, доц. Виноградова И. А.
Nowadays cancer is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. It requires some new medications besides chemotherapy, radiation and surgery which continue to be the standard treatment for cancer. Nowadays scientists consider that a cure is not the only way to beat cancer. The new medicines can transform it from an intractable, frequently lethal illness to a chronic but manageable one. Revolutionary new drugs combat cancer by targeting only the diseased cells unlike chemotherapy and radiation that destroy cancer cells and healthy cells alike. The number of new medicines is growing now, and the most common ones are given below. The first drug is Rituxan, it is effective against Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Rituxan is a monoclonal antibody, a molecule specifically engineered to bind a particular protein (CD20 antigen) on the surface of cancer cells and, in this case, single out the cancer cell for destruction by the immune system. The next drug is Herceptin. It is a drug specifically designed to target and block the function of a receptor (HER2) for a growth factor which stimulates certain kinds of breast-cancer cells to grow. Another drug — IMC-C225 — blocks a receptor which is called EFFR which is host to a protein called epidermal growth factor. The next group of drugs worm its way inside the cell, where they intercept growth messages percolating in from the surface. Those drugs are Glivec, which is effective against chronic myeloid leukemia, Tarceva, which is used to combat lung, head, neck tumors and Iressa, which is effective against lung, stomach, prostate tumors. They all break one of the most common signaling pathways by blocking an enzyme known as tyrosine kinase. By far the most celebrated of the new cancer fighters are the antiangiogenesis drugs. These compounds keep tumors from growing their own blood supplies. Tumors, like any other cells, need oxygen and nutrients to survive. Thus angiogenesis inhibitors do appear to slow tumor growth. Now more than 50 antiangiogenesis drugs are being studied in humans with a wide range of cancers, for example — Neovastat and Semaxanib. One of the most modern methods of cancer treatment is recruiting the body’s immune system to seek and destroy the tumor. Scientists focus on dendritic cells that are being studied as potential cancer vaccines. Dendritic cells, as antigen-presenting cells, display antigens to naïve T cells. When T cell recognize these antigens an immune response is set into action. The clinical approach is to remove dendritic cells from the cancer patient, to modify them in the laboratory to enable them to recognize the specific cancer antigens. After modification, the cells are returned to the patient where they mobilize white blood cells to fight the cancer. Of course all these drugs don’t help everyone and they may have side effects, but despite all these caveats these drugs are still a breakthrough — not only for what they do, but for the revolutionary strategy they represent.
IN IMPROOVING MAN’S HEALTH Valeyskaya V. — 2rd year student
Supervisor — ass. prof. Belousova G. P.
Translation editor — senior teacher N. V. SorokinaN. V.
Schungite is considered to be a unique natural mineral because of the presence of special fulleren molecules in it. It is supposed to have bactericidal effect and is able to neutralize harmful influence of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones, PC, TV, etc. Special significance is given to medicinal characteristics of schungite. Feet massage using schungite granules produces a relaxing and ataractic effect, causes a favourable response practically in every system of the organism. It is necessary to study the influence of schungite massage on the organism in detail to find out and use the healing power of this unique mineral. The aim of our work was to investigate its influence taking into account the emotional status of an individual. Using the TAS-questionnaire method primary data of senior pupils’ emotional status peculiarities of Karelia and the region of Murmansk were collected during 2004—2005 years. Considering the results two girls, pupils of the 11th grade were chosen, with a low and border level of TAS points. Examinees were stamping barefooted on crushed schungite stone for 5 minutes. Physiological indices investigation was held in the sitting position initially and after the feet massage in 1 and 5 minutes. Thresholds of skin sensitivity were investigated using the method of electrodiagnostics’ inspection with the help of electromyography stimulation block (Medicor, Hungary). The received facts show that emotional status of Karelian and Murmansk senior pupils has its’ peculiarities. A risk group by the existence of psychological factor — alexithymia in the personal structure was found. Scientists think that the existence of PAR or the incompetence in expressing ones’ feelings may influence the diagnosis of cardiovascular pathology. The conducted research showed that diastolic pressure of female examinee with border level of PAR was increasing in post-massage period. Cognitive load connected with the stimulus identification during the electro-diagnostic investigation was accompanied by accelerated pulse. We suppose that preventive foot self-massage using natural mineral — schungite provides a multiple-valued influence on the condition of the senior pupils’ organism, which depends on ones’ emotional status. Further development of physiologic basis of self massage using schungite stones as a preventive measure is of particular interest in order to develop health-improving methods. Thereupon the conducted research contributes a lot to preventive medicine for the purpose of improving ones’ health and senior pupils’ study optimization in conditions of European North.
^ COLD EXPOSURE TEST Kuzmina N., Matushechkin I. — 2rd year student
Supervisor — ass. prof. Kuzmina G. I.,
Candidate of Biological Sciences Sedneva T. U.,
senior teacher, Foreign Languages Department
It is known that cold is one of the abiotic ecological factors of the environment which causes a considerable discomfort in the human body. The mobilization of all systems of body’s defense takes place under acute affection of cold. One of the mechanisms of heat output reduction is the change in the state of blood system, providing the distribution of the blood flow. Nowadays the increasing incidence of cardio-vascular diseases is marked. The goal of our investigation is to study the action of the local cooling on the regulative mechanisms of the cardio-vascular system. The results of our investigations show that the central temperature doesn’t change much when carrying out the test, which speaks about little affection of the cold factor. During the exposition of cold the temperature of cooling and non-cooling extremities goes down. It was especially expressed on the extremity being cooled. Reducing the temperature takes place in 3 minutes after taking down of the cold. The speed of the skin temperature reducing was higher in the boys than in the girls. The next task of our investigation was to estimate the vegetative reactivity in the local cooling given by Vein. The most tested pupils (19 from 24 boys and 20 from 26 girls) have perverted vegetative reaction, which indicates to vegetative — vascular distoniya. Then we have analyzed the cardiac rhythm during the action of cooling. There is some tendency to the reduction of the variability of interimpulses intervals. The rhythm became more rigid. This tells us about the deterioration of the adaptive mechanisms of the cardiac work. Data concerning the unfavorable character of the reactions on cooling may be used as recommendations to prevent cardio-vascular diseases and this method may be recommended to use in the functional diagnostics for the quick estimation of the vegetative nervous system’s condition, especially for vegetative reactivity.
^ Повреждение центральной нервной системы
при несчастных случаях Юхновец К. — студ. 2 курса
Научный руководитель — докт. мед. наук, проф. Мейгал А. Ю.
Нарушения нервной системы, особенно в настоящее время, часто связаны с различными травмами головного и спинного мозга. Одной из частых форм повреждений является сотрясение головного мозга, которое встречается при падении и при различных авариях. При легких сотрясениях возникают только временные функциональные нарушения, которые не связаны с поражением структуры ткани. Достаточно сильные сотрясения могут привести к длительному бессознательному состоянию. Кроме того, частыми симптомами являются рвота, тошнота, возникающие провалы в памяти. Провалы в памяти могут возникать как на прошлые события, так и на настоящие. К опасным повреждениям головного мозга относят микрокровотечения, которые возникают при нарушении целостности сосудов. Если возникают кровотечения, то бессознательное состояние формируется очень быстро. При падении, например, с лестницы может быть поврежден и спинной мозг, что обуславливает образование параличей различных частей тела. В некоторых случаях это ведет к нарушениям функций мочевого пузыря либо нарушениям со стороны желудочно-кишечного тракта, которые проявляются в виде недержания мочи и отсутствия акта дефекации. При легком течении используется такое же лечение, как и при сотрясении головного мозга, то есть больному необходим полный покой в течение некоторого времени. В тяжелых случаях врачом назначается специальное лечение в больнице. Выздоровление занимает довольно длительное время. Изменения, возникающие в нервной системе, относятся к сложным заболеваниям. Это обусловлено строением центральной нервной системы и периферических нервов. Именно нервная система обеспечивает связь организма с внешней средой, она участвует в каждой прямой или непрямой боли. Поэтому нервные заболевания требуют очень специфической дифференцировки, для того чтобы правильно установить диагноз и затем лечение.